4-Nitrobenzylamine partially intercalated into graphite powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ atomic force microscopy

Gregory G. Wildgoose, Michael E. Hyde, Nathan S. Lawrence, Henry C. Leventis, Li Jiang, Timothy G. J. Jones, Richard G. Compton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


We report the characterization of partial intercalation of 4-nitrobenzylamine (4-NBA) into edge-plane or edge-plane-like defect sites on the surface of both graphite powder and "bamboo-like" multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using XPS. By comparing the XPS spectra of 4-NBA derivatized graphite powder and MWCNTs with that of graphite powder treated with benzylamine in a similar fashion, we conclude that benzylamine itself does not undergo partial intercalation. Using in situ at. force microscopy, we are able to observe the partial intercalation of 4-NBA into an edge-plane-like "step" defect on the surface of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite crystal in real time. Together these observations provide further evidence for the partial intercalation of 4-NBA and lead us to propose a new hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. [on SciFinder(R)]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4584-4591
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • intercalation nitrobenzylamine graphite carbon nanotube

Cite this