A Critical Analysis of the Transgender (Intersex) Persons Act, 2018, in Pakistan Versus United Nations Recommendations

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This chapter offers a comparative study of ‘the Transgender Persons Act, 2018’, of Pakistan and the United Nations Office of High Commissioner of Human Rights’ (UNOHCHR’s) recommendations in 2016. The term ‘transgender’ in the 2018 Act is an umbrella term for several identities, including intersex, khunsa, eunuch, and hijra. This research analyses the difference in the lives of intersex people in Pakistan reported by media, before and after the implementation of ‘the Transgender Persons Act, 2018’ through content analysis. I randomly selected 50 news reports, articles, and talk shows about intersex, 25 from local Pakistani media outlets and 25 from international media outlets, broadcasted and published in print, online, and on TV, between 2016 and 2019 in English and Urdu. In conclusion, this study sheds light on and contributes to the little-recognised subject of intersex in Pakistani society, by closely examining ‘the Transgender Persons Act, 2018’, in relation to media.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInterdisciplinary and Global Perspectives on Intersex
EditorsMegan Walker
PublisherSpringer Nature Switzerland AG
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-91474-5
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2022


  • Media and Gender
  • education facilities
  • non-consensual surgeries
  • Intersex in Pakistan
  • Intersex rights
  • psychological issues
  • healthcare services

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