A paleogenomic reconstruction of the deep population history of the Andes

Nathan Nakatsuka, Iosif Lazaridis, Chiara Barbieri, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Cosimo Posth, Kelly Harkins-Kinkaid, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Megan Michel, Kristin Stewardson, Jannine Novak-Forst, Jose Capriles, Marta Alfonso Durruty, Karina Aranda Alvarez, David Beresford-Jones, Richard Burger, Lauren Cadwallader, Johny IslaRicardo Fujita, George Lau, Carlos Lemuz Aguirre, Steven LeBlanc, Sergio Calla Maldonado, Frank Meddens, Pablo Messineo, Brendan Culleton, Thomas Harper, Jeffrey Quilter, Gustavo Politis, Kurt Rademaker, Markus Reindel, Mario Rivera, Lucy Salazar, Jose Sandoval, Calogero Santoro, Nahuel Scheifler, Vivien Standen, Maria Ines Barreto, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto-Cagigao, Guido Valverde, Douglas Kennett, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Bastien Llamas, David Reich, Lars Fehren-Schmitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ~9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today’s genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ~2,000–500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1131-1145.e21
Number of pages15
Early online date7 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2020

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