A polyclonal antibody preparation with Michaelian catalytic properties

G Gallacher, C S Jackson, Mark Searcey, G T Badman, R Goel, C M Topham, G W Mellor, K Brocklehurst

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Abstract

1. 4-Nitrophenyl 4'-(3-aza-2-oxoheptyl)phenyl carbonate (I), an amide conjugate (XI) involving the carboxy group of 4-nitrophenyl 4'-carboxymethylphenyl phosphate and an amino group of keyhole-limpet haemocyanin, and a fluorescein derivative (XVII) were synthesized. 2. The conjugate (XI) was used as an immunogen with which to raise polyclonal antibodies in multigeneration cross-bred sheep; the fluorescent derivative (XVII) was used for the initial assessment of the antisera via binding assays monitored by fluorescence polarization; the carbonate ester (I) was used as a chromogenic substrate for the investigation of catalytic activity. 3. The IgG from the antiserum of sheep no. 270 was isolated by Na2SO4 precipitation and chromatography on Protein G-Sepharose. 4. This preparation of IgG catalysed the hydrolysis of the carbonate ester (I); the catalysis at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with at least 25 turnovers, Km = 3.34 microM, and lower limits for kcat. of 0.029 s-1 and for kcat./Km of 8.77 x 10(3) M-1.S-1, on the unlikely assumption that the concentration of catalytic antibody is provided by twice the total IgG concentration (two sites per molecule); probable estimates of the fraction of the total IgG that is anti-haptenic IgG and of the fraction of this that is catalytically active suggest that the values of kcat./Km are actually very much larger than these lower limits. 5. The failure of the antibody preparation to catalyse the hydrolysis of the isomeric 2-nitrophenyl carbonate (II), which differs from compound (I) only in the position of the nitro substituent in the leaving group, compels the view that catalytic activity is due to antibody rather than contaminant enzyme; this conclusion is supported by (a) the failure of the following to discriminate effectively between the isomeric substrates (I) and (II): pig liver carboxylesterase, rabbit liver carboxylesterase (collectively EC 3.1.1.1), whole serum from a non-immunized sheep and whole serum from a sheep immunized with a derivative of 3-O-methylnoradrenaline and (b) the lack of catalytic activity in IgG preparations from sheep immunized with sulphoxide or sulphone analogues of immunogen (XI). 6. The various parameters used for the comparison of the kinetic characteristics of hydrolytic catalytic antibodies are discussed. 7. The characteristics of hydrolysis of compound (I) catalysed by the present polyclonal antibody preparation are shown to be substantially better in most respects than those of analogous reactions of two other carbonate esters catalysed by monoclonal antibodies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)871-881
Number of pages11
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume279
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 1991

Keywords

  • Swine
  • Animals
  • Antigen-Antibody Reactions
  • Sheep
  • Carboxylesterase
  • Rabbits
  • Drug Design
  • Hydrolysis
  • Antibodies
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
  • Kinetics
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Liver
  • Catalysis

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