A qualitative exploration of the mechanisms, pathways and public health outcomes of a city centre 20mph speed limit intervention: the case study of Belfast, United Kingdom

Claire L. Cleland, Graham Baker, Kieran Turner, Ruth Jepson, Frank Kee, Karen Milton, Michael P. Kelly, Glenna Nightingale, Ruth F. Hunter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Twenty miles per hour (mph) speed limits can impact the health of the public (e.g., road safety, active travel). However, a better understanding of how individuals experience 20mph limits is required, to ensure interventions are cognisant of perceptions and potential un/intended outcomes. Focus groups (n = 9, 60 participants) to explore the Belfast 20mph intervention highlighted divergent perspectives and experiences including: 12 mechanisms (e.g., limited awareness), 15 pathways (e.g., reduced driving speed→improved liveability) and 10 public health outcomes (e.g., increased cyclist safety). Future interventions should consider un/intended outcomes and implement strategies to enhance effectiveness and mitigate harms (e.g., through training, enforcement).
Original languageEnglish
Article number102627
JournalHealth and Place
Early online date20 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • 20mph speed limit (30km/h)
  • Complex intervention
  • Focus groups
  • Mechanisms
  • Pathways

Cite this