Herbivory is fundamental to the regulation of both global food webs and the extent of agricultural crop losses. Induced plant responses to herbivores promote resistance and often involve the perception of specific herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs); however, precisely defined receptors and elicitors associated with herbivore recognition remain elusive. Here, we show that a receptor confers signaling and defense outputs in response to a defined HAMP common in caterpillar oral secretions (OS). Staple food crops, including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), specifically respond to OS via recognition of proteolytic fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase, termed inceptins. Using forward-genetic mapping of inceptin-induced plant responses, we identified a corresponding leucine-rich repeat receptor, termed INR, specific to select legume species and sufficient to confer inceptin-induced responses and enhanced defense against armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) in tobacco. Our results support the role of plant immune receptors in the perception of chewing herbivores and defense.