A Study on Visual and Structural Characteristics of Landmarks and Experts’ and Non-experts’ Evaluations

Demet Yesiltepe, Ruth Conroy Dalton, Ayse Ozbil Torun, Antoine Coutrot, Michael Hornberger, Hugo Spiers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to understand what makes a landmark more salient and to explore whether assessments of saliency vary between experts and non-experts. We hypothesize that non-experts’ saliency judgments will agree with those of the experts. Secondly, we hypothesize that not only visual characteristics but also structural characteristics make landmarks salient and that the size and visibility of objects are important for them to be considered as salient. To test our hypotheses, an online navigation game, Sea Hero Quest (SHQ), was used and two levels of the game were selected as the case study. The characteristics of these levels were evaluated by non-experts and experts in the field. Our results suggest that both visual and structural characteristics of landmarks make them more salient. We also discovered that experts’ saliency evaluations are mostly consistent with non-experts’.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpatial Cognition - 12th International Conference, Spatial Cognition 2020, Proceedings
EditorsJurǵis Šķilters, Nora S. Newcombe, David Uttal
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-57983-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-57982-1
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12162 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


  • Landmarks
  • Navigation
  • Saliency
  • Wayfinding

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