INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's) are believed to have multipotent plasticity with the capability to differentiate along multiple cell lineages such as cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle, and nerve. Such multipotency has the potential to play an important role in the repair and reconstruction of multiple tissues across a number of orthopaedic specialties. Bone marrow and fat are the most abundant and accessible source of MSC's with bone marrow aspirate the most commonly being reported to stimulate healing.
METHODS: This review examines the current reported 20 Q2 clinical applications of bone marrow aspirate concentrate and its effectiveness.
RESULTS: The published studies reported techniques of collection and preparation of BMAC in addition to its applications in a number of orthopaedic sub-specialities. Studies could be sub-categorised into: techniques of extraction, processing and microscopic examination of BMAC (31), reconstruction of osseous defects/non-union (20), treatment of avascular necrosis (9), repair of cartilage defects (8), treatment of sports injuries and tendon injury/repair (9), injection in regenerative therapy (4), treatment of spine conditions (4) including enhancing postoperative fusion and degenerative disc pathology and orthopaedic oncology (4). A few published studies combined the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with BMAC (4) or compared them in different applications (5).
CONCLUSIONS: BMAC has been used in bone, cartilage and tendon injuries with encouraging results.