A theory-informed systematic review of barriers and enablers to implementing multi-drug pharmacogenomic testing

Essra Youssef, Debi Bhattacharya, Ravi Sharma, David J. Wright

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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PGx testing requires a complex set of activities undertaken by practitioners and patients, resulting in varying implementation success. This systematic review aimed (PROSPERO: CRD42019150940) to identify barriers and enablers to practitioners and patients implementing pharmacogenomic testing. We followed PRISMA guidelines to conduct and report this review. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed Central were systematically searched from inception to June 2022. The theoretical domain framework (TDF) guided the organisation and reporting of barriers or enablers relating to pharmacogenomic testing activities. From the twenty-five eligible reports, eleven activities were described relating to four implementation stages: ordering, facilitating, interpreting, and applying pharmacogenomic testing. Four themes were identified across the implementation stages: IT infrastructure, effort, rewards, and unknown territory. Barriers were most consistently mapped to TDF domains: memory, attention and decision-making processes, environmental context and resources, and belief about consequences.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1821
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2022


  • implementation
  • pharmacogenomics
  • systematic review

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