A vector system for fast-forward studies of the HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE1 (ZAR1) resistosome in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana

Adeline Harant, Hsuan Pai, Toshiyuki Sakai, Sophien Kamoun, Hiroaki Adachi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


Nicotiana benthamiana has emerged as a complementary experimental system to Arabidopsis thaliana. It enables fast-forward in vivo analyses primarily through transient gene expression and is particularly popular in the study of plant immunity. Recently, our understanding of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) plant immune receptors has greatly advanced following the discovery of the Arabidopsis HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE1 (ZAR1) resistosome. Here, we describe a vector system of 72 plasmids that enables functional studies of the ZAR1 resistosome in N. benthamiana. We showed that ZAR1 stands out among the coiled coil class of NLRs (CC-NLRs) for being highly conserved across distantly related dicot plant species and confirmed NbZAR1 as the N. benthamiana ortholog of Arabidopsis ZAR1. Effector-activated and autoactive NbZAR1 triggers the cell death response in N. benthamiana and this activity is dependent on a functional N-terminal α1 helix. C-terminally tagged NbZAR1 remains functional in N. benthamiana, thus enabling cell biology and biochemical studies in this plant system. We conclude that the NbZAR1 open source pZA plasmid collection forms an additional experimental system to Arabidopsis for in planta resistosome studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-80
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number1
Early online date11 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Cite this