Access and non–access site bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention and risk of subsequent mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Chun Shing Kwok, Muhammad A. Khan, Sunil V. Rao, Tim Kinnaird, Matt Sperrin, Iain Buchan, Mark A. de Belder, Peter F. Ludman, James Nolan, Yoon K. Loke, Mamas A Mamas (Lead Author)

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Background: The prognostic impact of site-specific major bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has yielded conflicting data. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of site-specific major bleeding events in contemporary PCI and study their impact on mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event outcomes.
Methods and Results: We conducted a meta-analysis of PCI studies that evaluated site-specific periprocedural bleeding complications and their impact on major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality outcomes. A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase was conducted to identify relevant studies and random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the risk of adverse outcomes with site-specific bleeding complications. Twenty-five relevant studies including 2 400 645 patients that underwent PCI were identified. Both non–access site (risk ratio [RR], 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21–5.14) and access site (RR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.37–2.13) related bleeding complications were independently associated with an increased risk of periprocedural mortality. The prognostic impact of non–access site–related bleeding events on mortality related to the source of anatomic bleeding, for example, gastrointestinal RR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.25 to 6.18; retroperitoneal RR, 5.87; 95% CI, 1.63 to 21.12; and intracranial RR, 22.71; 95% CI, 12.53 to 41.15.
Conclusions: The prognostic impact of bleeding complications after PCI varies according to anatomic source and severity. Non–access site-related bleeding complications have a similar prevalence to those from the access site but are associated with a significantly worse prognosis partly related to the severity of the bleed. Clinicians should minimize the risk of major bleeding complications during PCI through judicious use of bleeding avoidance strategies irrespective of the access site used.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere001645
Number of pages33
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Interventions
Early online date30 Mar 2015
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015


  • cardiovascular disease
  • hemorrhage
  • percutaneous coronary intervention

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