Methods: Susceptibility testing was by BSAC agar dilution with resistance mechanisms identified by PCR and interpretive reading.
Results: Data were reviewed for 6080 BSAC surveillance isolates and 5473 referred organisms. Ceftolozane/tazobactam had good activity against unselected ESBL producers in the BSAC series, but activity was reduced against ertapenem-resistant ESBL producers, which were numerous among reference submissions. AmpC-derepressed Enterobacter spp. were widely resistant, but Escherichia coli with raised chromosomal AmpC frequently remained susceptible, as did Klebsiella pneumoniae with acquired DHA-1-type AmpC. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were mostly resistant, except for ceftazidime-susceptible isolates with OXA-48-like enzymes. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was active against 99.8% of the BSAC Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates; against referred P. aeruginosa it was active against 99.7% with moderately raised efflux, 94.7% with strongly raised efflux and 96.6% with derepressed AmpC. Resistance in P. aeruginosa was largely confined to isolates with metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) or ESBLs. MICs for referred Burkholderia spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were 2–4-fold lower than those of ceftazidime.
Conclusions: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is active against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae; gains against other problem Enterobacteriaceae groups were limited. Against P. aeruginosa it overcame the two most prevalent mechanisms (up-regulated efflux and derepressed AmpC) and was active against 51.9% of isolates non-susceptible to all other β-lactams, rising to 80.9% if ESBL and MBL producers were excluded.