Adjustment as process and outcome: Measuring adjustment to HIV in Uganda

Faith Martin (Lead Author), Steve Russell, Janet Seeley

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‘Adjustment’ in health refers to both processes and outcomes. Its measurement and conceptualisation in African cultures is limited. In total, 263 people living with HIV and receiving anti-retroviral therapy in clinics in Uganda completed a translated Mental Adjustment to HIV Scale, depression items from the Hopkins checklist and demographic questions. Factor analysis revealed four Mental Adjustment to HIV factors of active coping, cognitive–social adjustment, hopelessness and denial/avoidance. Correlations with depression supported the Mental Adjustment to HIV’s validity and the importance of active adjustment, while the role of cognitive adjustment was unclear. Factors were process or outcome focussed, suggesting a need for theory-based measures in general.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)872-883
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Health Psychology
Issue number5
Early online date16 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


  • adjustment
  • cross-cultural
  • HIV
  • measure
  • psychometrics

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