Problematic behaviour in adopted teenage children often stems from their very early experiences. In examining the evolution of the relationship between parents and their adopted children from adolescence to early adulthood David Howe identifies three types of adoption, each associated with a distinct pattern of pre-placement care. On the basis of this classification the quality of parent-child relationships is explored at two key stages: when the adopted person is 16 and over 23. In addition, the adopters interviewed in Howe's study provided their own long-term views of the adoption process when looking back. Those who managed to survive the most stressful years often reported much more relaxed, reciprocal relationships with their grown-up children. But they also underlined the importance of expert advice and support to help see them through the worst times.