Alarmins: awaiting a clinical response

James K Chan, Johannes Roth, Joost J Oppenheim, Kevin J Tracey, Thomas Vogl, Marc Feldmann, Nicole Horwood, Jagdeep Nanchahal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

388 Citations (Scopus)


Alarmins are endogenous molecules that are constitutively available and released upon tissue damage and activate the immune system. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of alarmins contributes to the dysregulated processes seen in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as tumorigenesis and cancer spread. Conversely, alarmins have also been found to play a major role in the orchestration of tissue homeostasis, including repair and remodeling in the heart, skin, and nervous system. Here, we provide an update and overview on alarmins, highlighting the areas that may benefit from this clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2711-2719
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2012


  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases/immunology
  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation/immunology
  • Inflammation Mediators/immunology
  • Neoplasms/immunology
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Sepsis/immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology

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