AmpC β-lactamase induction by avibactam and relebactam

David M Livermore, Dorota Jamrozy, Shazad Mushtaq, Wright W Nichols, Katherine Young, Neil Woodford

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17 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Diazabicyclooctanes, e.g. avibactam and relebactam, are a new class of β-lactamase inhibitors. Their spectrum includes AmpC enzymes, but it is important to understand whether they also induce these enzymes. 

Methods: Levels of ampC mRNA were measured by RT–PCR during 4 h of exposure of Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5 strains per species) to avibactam, relebactam and cefoxitin at 0, 1, 4 and 32 mg/L. The method had low precision compared with conventional specific-activity-based induction assays, which are impracticable for inhibitors. Accordingly, induction was only considered to be significant if induction ratios >10 were found at two consecutive time intervals, with ‘strong induction’ if one or more of these ratios was >100. 

Results: Cefoxitin, as expected, gave concentration-dependent induction for all strains, with strong induction for 13/15. At the other extreme, relebactam caused no significant induction for any strain. Avibactam gave strain-variable results, with strong concentration-dependent induction for 2/5 E. cloacae and 2/5 P. aeruginosa, but little or no induction for the other strains, including all the C. freundii strains. 

Conclusions: Avibactam, but not relebactam, had some strain-variable ability to induce AmpC enzymes, though at concentrations (32 mg/L) above those reached in the patient.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3342–3348
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number12
Early online date6 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

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