An In Vitro Chicken Gut Model Demonstrates Transfer of a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid from Salmonella to Commensal Escherichia coli

Roderick M. Card, Shaun A. Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J. Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J. Pallen, Martin J. Woodward, Muna F. Anjum

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Abstract

The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1. We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity. Bacterial community profiles obtained by culture-independent methods showed that Salmonella inoculation resulted in no significant changes to bacterial community alpha diversity and beta diversity, whereas administration of cefotaxime caused significant alterations to both measures of diversity, which largely recovered. MDR plasmid transfer from Salmonella to commensal Escherichia coli was demonstrated by PCR and whole-genome sequencing of isolates purified from agar plates containing cefotaxime. Transfer occurred to seven E. coli sequence types at high rates, even in the absence of cefotaxime, with resistant strains isolated within 3 days. Our chemostat system provides a good representation of bacterial interactions, including antibiotic resistance transfer in vivo. It can be used as an ethical and relatively inexpensive approach to model dissemination of antibiotic resistance within the gut of any animal or human and refine interventions that mitigate its spread before employing in vivo studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e00777-17
JournalmBIO
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2017

Keywords

  • Escherichia coli
  • Salmonella
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • enteric pathogens
  • horizontal gene transfer
  • plasmids

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