16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing identified active xylose- and glucose-fermenting Bacteria and active Archaea, including methanogens, in anoxic slurries of material obtained from a moderately acidic, CH4-emitting fen. Xylose and glucose were converted to fatty acids, CO2, H2, and CH4 under moderately acidic, anoxic conditions, indicating that the fen harbors moderately acid-tolerant xylose- and glucose-using fermenters, as well as moderately acid-tolerant methanogens. Organisms of the families Acidaminococcaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and the order Actinomycetales, including hitherto unknown organisms, utilized xylose- or glucose-derived carbon, suggesting that highly diverse facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes contribute to the flow of carbon in the fen under anoxic conditions. Uncultured Euryarchaeota (i.e., Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae) and Crenarchaeota species were identified by 16S rRNA analysis of anoxic slurries, demonstrating that the acidic fen harbors novel methanogens and Crenarchaeota organisms capable of anaerobiosis. Fermentation-derived molecules are conceived to be the primary drivers of methanogenesis when electron acceptors other than CO2 are absent, and the collective findings of this study indicate that fen soils harbor diverse, acid-tolerant, and novel xylose-utilizing as well as glucose-utilizing facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes that form trophic links to novel moderately acid-tolerant methanogens.