Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability

David W. J. Thompson, John M. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2604 Citations (Scopus)


The leading modes of variability of the extratropical circulation in both hemispheres are characterized by deep, zonally symmetric or “annular” structures, with geopotential height perturbations of opposing signs in the polar cap region and in the surrounding zonal ring centered near 45° latitude. The structure and dynamics of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode have been extensively documented, whereas the existence of a Northern Hemisphere (NH) mode, herein referred to as the Arctic Oscillation (AO), has only recently been recognized. Like the SH mode, the AO can be defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function of the sea level pressure field or of the zonally symmetric geopotential height or zonal wind fields. In this paper the structure and seasonality of the NH and SH modes are compared based on data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis and supplementary datasets.

The structures of the NH and SH annular modes are shown to be remarkably similar, not only in the zonally averaged geopotential height and zonal wind fields, but in the mean meridional circulations as well. Both exist year-round in the troposphere, but they amplify with height upward into the stratosphere during those seasons in which the strength of the zonal flow is conducive to strong planetary wave–mean flow interaction: midwinter in the NH and late spring in the SH. During these “active seasons,” the annular modes modulate the strength of the Lagrangian mean circulation in the lower stratosphere, total column ozone and tropopause height over mid- and high latitudes, and the strength of the trade winds of their respective hemispheres. The NH mode also contains an embedded planetary wave signature with expressions in surface air temperature, precipitation, total column ozone, and tropopause height. It is argued that the horizontal temperature advection by the perturbed zonal-mean zonal wind field in the lower troposphere is instrumental in forcing this pattern.

A companion paper documents the striking resemblance between the structure of the annular modes and observed climate trends over the past few decades.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1000–1016
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Climate
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2000

Cite this