Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive pathogens in Saudi Arabia

Saber Yezli, Atef M. Shibl, David M. Livermore, Ziad A. Memish

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25 Citations (Scopus)


Several species of Gram-positive cocci are major nosocomial or community pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens in Saudi Arabia. In the last decades, antimicrobial resistance has increased among Staphylococcus aureus in the Kingdom with a growing prevalence of both nosocomial and community methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. As yet, no vancomycin-resistant MRSA have been reported, although isolates with reduced susceptibility to the drug have been noted. Currently, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant entrococci (VRE) is low; however, VRE has been described in the Kingdom as well as Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates with high-level resistance to penicillin, sulfamethoxazole, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. In recent decades, the prevalence and rate of penicillin resistance and non-susceptibility among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates have increased in Saudi Arabia. The organism remains, however, susceptible to other beta-lactams and to quinolones. On the other hand, resistance to co-trimoxazole and tetracyclines is high and resistance to macrolides is on the increase.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-136
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chemotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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