Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understsource transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST SN from humans (P < 0.0001). While these findings could be consistent with the belief that cattle are a source of resistant ST SN for people, occurrence of profiles unique to cattle not observed in temporally related human isolates indicates these profiles are circulating in cattle only. We used various measures to assess AMR diversity, conditional on the weighting of rare versus abundant profiles. AMR profile richness was greater in the common serovars from humans, although both source data sets were dominated by relatively few profiles. The greater profile richness in human Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans cattle, the expected observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella associated resistance from humans cattle may not be wholly derived from a common population.
- Anti-microbial resistance