The phytotoxin coronatine and the plant growth regulator methyl jasmonate (MeJA) caused similar growth-inhibitory effects on Arabidopsis seedlings. To test whether these two compounds have similar action, 14 independent coi1 (coronatine-insensitive) mutants of Arabidopsis were selected. The mutants segregated as single recessive Mendelian markers, and all were alleles at the coi1 locus. All coi1 mutants were also insensitive to MeJA and were male sterile. Both coronatine and MeJA inhibited root growth, stimulated anthocyanin accumulation, and increased the level of two proteins of ∼31 and ∼29 kD detected in SDS-polyacrylamide gels of wild-type Arabidopsis but caused none of these effects in the coi1 mutant. Coronatine and MeJA also induced the systemic appearance of proteinase inhibitor activity in tomato. The male-sterile flowers of the coi1 mutant produced abnormal pollen and had reduced level of an ∼31-kD protein, which was abundant in the wild-type flowers. A coronatine-producing strain of Pseudomonas syringae grew in leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis to a population more than 100 times greater than it reached in the coi1 mutant. We conclude that coronatine mimics the action of MeJA and that coi1 controls a step in MeJA perception/response and in flower development.