Association of left ventricular flow energetics with remodeling after myocardial infarction: New hemodynamic insights for left ventricular remodeling

Ahmet Demirkiran, Rob J. van der Geest, Luuk H. G. A. Hopman, Lourens F. H. J. Robbers, M. Louis Handoko, Robin Nijveldt, John P. Greenwood, Sven Plein, Pankaj Garg

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Background: Myocardial infarction leads to complex changes in left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics. It remains unknown how four-dimensional acute changes in LV-cavity blood flow kinetic energy affects LV-remodeling.

Methods and results: In total, 69 revascularised ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were enrolled. All patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination within 2 days of the index event and at 3-month. CMR examination included cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and whole-heart four-dimensional flow acquisitions. LV volume-function, infarct size (indexed to body surface area), microvascular obstruction, mitral inflow, and blood flow KEi (kinetic energy indexed to end-diastolic volume) characteristics were obtained. Adverse LV-remodeling was defined and categorized according to increase in LV end-diastolic volume of at least 10%, 15%, and 20%. Twenty-four patients (35%) developed at least 10%, 17 patients (25%) at least 15%, 11 patients (16%) at least 20% LV-remodeling. Demographics and clinical history were comparable between patients with/without LV-remodeling. In univariable regression-analysis, A-wave KEi was associated with at least 10%, 15%, and 20% LV-remodeling (p = 0.03, p = 0.02, p = 0.02, respectively), whereas infarct size only with at least 10% LV-remodeling (p = 0.02). In multivariable regression-analysis, A-wave KEi was identified as an independent marker for at least 10%, 15%, and 20% LV-remodeling (p = 0.09, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively), yet infarct size only for at least 10% LV-remodeling (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: In patients with STEMI, LV hemodynamic assessment by LV blood flow kinetic energetics demonstrates a significant inverse association with adverse LV-remodeling. Late-diastolic LV blood flow kinetic energetics early after acute MI was independently associated with adverse LV-remodeling.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Early online date23 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2022


  • Kinetic energy
  • Left ventricular remodeling
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

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