Associations of circulating retinol, vitamin E, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with prostate cancer diagnosis, stage, and grade

Rebecca Gilbert, Chris Metcalfe, William D. Fraser, Jenny Donovan, Freddie Hamdy, David E. Neal, J. Athene Lane, Richard M. Martin

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25 Citations (Scopus)


Some epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E, and vitamin D (total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin, 1,25(OH)(2)D) are protective against prostate cancer. However, the evidence is not conclusive, with positive and null associations reported for all three vitamins. Limitations of previous studies include small sample size, lack of population controls, and reliance on self-reported dietary intake. Few studies have explored the interactions of circulating 25(OH)D with 1,25(OH)(2)D or retinol, which are biologically plausible interactions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1865-1873
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Causes & Control
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012


  • Case-Control Studies
  • Great Britain
  • Humans
  • Kallikreins
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E

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