Backwards is the way forward: feedback in the cortical hierarchy predicts the expected future

Lars Muckli, Lucy S. Petro, Fraser W. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Clark offers a powerful description of the brain as a prediction machine, which offers progress on two distinct levels. First, on an abstract conceptual level, it provides a unifying framework for perception, action, and cognition (including subdivisions such as attention, expectation, and imagination). Second, hierarchical prediction offers progress on a concrete descriptive level for testing and constraining conceptual elements and mechanisms of predictive coding models (estimation of predictions, prediction errors, and internal models).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221
Number of pages1
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
Issue number3
Early online date10 May 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Cite this