Bioavailability of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane from high-glucoraphanin broccoli

Tharsini Sivapalan, Antonietta Melchini, Shikha Saha, Paul W. Needs, Maria H. Traka, Henri S. Tapp, Jack R. Dainty, Richard F. Mithen

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Scope: Broccoli accumulates 4-methylsulphinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin) which is hydrolyzed to the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Through the introgression of novel alleles of the Myb28 transcription factor from Brassica villosa, broccoli genotypes have been developed that have enhanced levels of glucoraphanin. This study sought to quantify the exposure of human tissues to glucoraphanin and sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli with contrasting Myb28 genotypes.

Methods and results: Ten participants were recruited into a three-phase, double-blinded, randomized crossover trial (NCT02300324), with each phase comprising consumption of 300 ml of a soup made from broccoli of one of three Myb28 genotypes (Myb28B/B, Myb28B/V, Myb28V/V). Plant myrosinases were intentionally denatured during soup manufacture. Three-fold and five-fold higher levels of sulforaphane occurred in the circulation following consumption of Myb28V/B and Myb28V/V broccoli soups, respectively. The percentage of sulforaphane excreted in 24 h relative to the amount of glucoraphanin consumed varied amongst volunteers from 2% to 15%, but did not depend on the broccoli genotype.

Conclusion: This is the first study to report the bioavailability of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane from soups made with novel broccoli varieties. The presence of one or two Myb28V alleles results in enhanced delivery of sulforaphane to the systemic circulation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1700911
JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
Issue number18
Early online date21 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018


  • bioavailability
  • broccoli
  • glucoraphanin
  • pharmacokinetics
  • sulforaphane

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