Burnout and work engagement: The JD-R approach.

Arnold B. Bakker, E. Demerouti, Ana Sanz Vergel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1014 Citations (Scopus)


Whereas burnout refers to a state of exhaustion and cynicism toward
work, engagement is defined as a positive motivational state of vigor,
dedication, and absorption. In this article, we discuss the main definitions
and conceptualizations of both concepts used in the literature.
In addition, we review the most important antecedents of burnout
and work engagement by examining situational and individual predictors.
We also review the possible consequences of burnout and
engagement and integrate the research findings using job demands–
resources theory. Although both burnout and work engagement are
related to important job-related outcomes, burnout seems to be more
strongly related to health outcomes, whereas work engagement is
more strongly related to motivational outcomes. We discuss daily and
momentary fluctuations in burnout and work engagement as possibilities
for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-411
Number of pages22
JournalAnnual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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