Cachexia in chronic heart failure: Prognostic implications and novel therapeutic approaches

Yoshihiro J. Akashi, Jochen Springer, Stefan D. Anker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)


Cachexia in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) has been recognized for a long time; however, it has not received much attention until recently. Cardiac cachexia, a common and serious complication of CHF, is associated with very poor prognosis. Several studies have demonstrated that increased neurohormonal and immune abnormalities may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiac cachexia. Hormonal and catabolic/anabolic imbalances of the body are likely to be responsible for the development of cachexia in CHF. Recently, ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been widely noticed to have potential in the treatment of severe CHF and cardiac cachexia. However, further research will be necessary to identify the exact pathways involved and to find the best therapeutic strategies of using ghrelin to fight the wasting process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-203
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Heart Failure Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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