In this review, we begin by highlighting the lack of available evidence to support current diagnostic criteria for psychophysiologic insomnia. We then outline 3 new testable candidate cognitive processes in psychophysiologic insomnia: attention bias, sleep effort, and metacognitive beliefs. Each candidate element is carefully described. Evidence of involvement in insomnia maintenance is discussed based on the existing literature. The need for an experimental research agenda to examine the interplay of these candidate cognitive processes is then emphasized. Research ideas are presented throughout our discussions.