Cardiovascular disease as part of Long COVID: A systematic review

Vasiliki Tsampasian, Maria Bäck, Marco Bernardi, Elena Cavarretta, Maciej Dębski, Sabiha Gati, Dominique Hansen, Nicolle Kränkel, Konstantinos C. Koskinas, Josef Niebauer, Luigi Spadafora, Manuel Frias Vargas, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Vassilios S. Vassiliou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: Long COVID syndrome has had a major impact on million patients’ lives worldwide. The cardiovascular system is an important aspect of this multifaceted disease that may manifest in many ways. We have hereby performed a narrative review in order to identify the extent of the cardiovascular manifestations of the Long COVID syndrome.

Methods and results: An in-depth systematic search of the literature has been conducted for this narrative review. The systematic search of PubMed and Cochrane databases yielded 3993 articles, of which 629 underwent full-text screening. A total of 78 studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis and data evaluation. The pathophysiology of the cardiovascular sequelae of Long COVID syndrome and the cardiac manifestations and complications of Long COVID syndrome are critically evaluated. In addition, potential cardiovascular risk factors are assessed, and preventive methods and treatment options are examined in this review.

Conclusion: This systematic review poignantly summarizes the evidence from the available literature regarding the cardiovascular manifestations of Long COVID syndrome and reviews potential mechanistic pathways, diagnostic approaches, preventive measures, and treatment options.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Early online date21 Feb 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Feb 2024

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