Clinical evaluation of respiratory motion compensation for anatomical roadmap guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

YingLiang Ma, Andy P. King, Nicolas Gogin, Geert Gijsbers, C. A. Rinaldi, Jaswinder Gill, Reza Razavi, Kawal S. Rhode

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30 Citations (Scopus)


X-ray fluoroscopically guided cardiac electrophysiological procedures are routinely carried out for diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. X-ray images have poor soft tissue contrast and, for this reason, overlay of static 3-D roadmaps derived from preprocedural volumetric data can be used to add anatomical information. However, the registration between the 3-D roadmap and the 2-D X-ray image can be compromised by patient respiratory motion. Three methods were designed and evaluated to correct for respiratory motion using features in the 2-D X-ray images. The first method is based on tracking either the diaphragm or the heart border using the image intensity in a region of interest. The second method detects the tracheal bifurcation using the generalized Hough transform and a 3-D model derived from 3-D preoperative volumetric data. The third method is based on tracking the coronary sinus (CS) catheter. This method uses blob detection to find all possible catheter electrodes in the X-ray image. A cost function is applied to select one CS catheter from all catheter-like objects. All three methods were applied to X-ray images from 18 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The 2-D target registration errors (TRE) at the pulmonary veins were calculated to validate the methods. A TRE of 1.6 mm ± 0.8 mm was achieved for the diaphragm tracking; 1.7 mm ± 0.9 mm for heart border tracking, 1.9 mm ± 1.0 mm for trachea tracking, and 1.8 mm ± 0.9 mm for CS catheter tracking. We present a comprehensive comparison between the techniques in terms of robustness, as computed by tracking errors, and accuracy, as computed by TRE using two independent approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-131
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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