The Xo1 locus in the heirloom rice variety Carolina Gold Select confers resistance to bacterial leaf streak and bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae, respectively. Resistance is triggered by pathogen-delivered transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) independent of their ability to activate transcription and is suppressed by truncated variants called truncTALEs, common among Asian strains. By transformation of the susceptible variety Nipponbare, we show that one of 14 nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein genes at the locus, with a zinc finger BED domain, is the Xo1 gene. Analyses of published transcriptomes revealed that the Xo1-mediated response is more similar to those mediated by two other NLR resistance genes than it is to the response associated with TALE-specific transcriptional activation of the executor resistance gene Xa23 and that a truncTALE dampens or abolishes activation of defense-associated genes by Xo1. In Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, fluorescently tagged Xo1 protein, like TALEs and truncTALEs, localized to the nucleus. And endogenous Xo1 specifically coimmunoprecipitated from rice leaves with a pathogen-delivered, epitope-tagged truncTALE. These observations suggest that suppression of Xo1-function by truncTALEs occurs through direct or indirect physical interaction. They further suggest that effector coimmunoprecipitation may be effective for identifying or characterizing other resistance genes.
- defense suppression
- mass spectrometry
- nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR)
- protein-protein interaction
- resistance genes
- transcription activator-like effector (TALE)