Comparative bio-accessibility, bioavailability and bioequivalence of quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids from freeze-dried vegetables incorporated into a baked snack versus minimally processed vegetables: Evidence from in vitro models and a human bioavailability study

Natalia Perez-Moral, Shikha Saha, Mark Philo, Dave J. Hart, Mark S. Winterbone, Wendy J. Hollands, Mike Spurr, John Bows, Vera van der Velpen, Paul A. Kroon, Peter J. Curtis

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The aim was to incorporate vegetables containing the phytochemicals quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids into a processed potato-based snack and assess their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Three different processing routes were tested for incorporation and retention of phytochemicals in snacks using individually quick frozen or freeze-dried vegetables. No significant differences in the uptake or transport of quercetin or apigenin between a vegetable mix or snacks were observed using the CaCo-2 transwell model. Simulated in vitro digestions predicted a substantial release of quercetin and apigenin, some release of glucoraphanin but none for carotenes from either the snack or equivalent steamed vegetables. In humans, there were no significant differences in the bioavailability of quercetin, apigenin or glucoraphanin from the snack or equivalent steamed vegetables. We have shown that significant quantities of freeze-dried vegetables can be incorporated into snacks with good retention of phytochemicals and with similar bioavailability to equivalent steamed vegetables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-419
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
Early online date21 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018


  • Digestion
  • Flavonoids
  • Food processing
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytochemicals

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