Comparative effectiveness of 12 treatment strategies for preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury: A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis

Xiaole Su, Xinfang Xie, Lijun Liu, Jicheng Lv, Fujian Song, Vlado Perkovic, Hong Zhang

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Background: To simultaneously evaluate the relative efficacy of multiple pharmacologic strategies for preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). 
Study Design: Systematic review containing a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 
Setting & Population: Participants undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures with contrast media. 
Selection Criteria for Studies: Randomized controlled trials comparing the active drug treatments with each other or with hydration alone. 
Intervention: Any of the following drugs in combination with hydration: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), theophylline (aminophylline), fenoldopam, iloprost, alprostadil, prostaglandin E1, statins, statins plus NAC, bicarbonate sodium, bicarbonate sodium plus NAC, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol (vitamin E), α-lipoic acid, atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and carperitide. 
Outcomes: The occurrence of contrast-induced AKI. 
Results: The trial network included 150 trials with 31,631 participants and 4,182 contrast-induced AKI events assessing 12 different interventions. Compared to hydration, ORs (95% credible intervals) for contrast-induced AKI were 0.31 (0.14-0.60) for high-dose statin plus NAC, 0.37 (0.19-0.64) for high-dose statin alone, 0.37 (0.17-0.72) for prostaglandins, 0.48 (0.26-0.82) for theophylline, 0.62 (0.40-0.88) for bicarbonate sodium plus NAC, 0.67 (0.54-0.81) for NAC alone, 0.64 (0.41-0.95) for vitamins and analogues, 0.70 (0.29-1.37) for natriuretic peptides, 0.69 (0.31-1.37) for fenoldopam, 0.78 (0.59-1.01) for bicarbonate sodium, and 0.98 (0.41-2.07) for low-dose statin. High-dose statin plus NAC or high-dose statin alone were likely to be ranked the best or the second best for preventing contrast-induced AKI. The overall results were not materially changed in metaregressions or subgroup and sensitivity analyses. 
Limitations: Patient-level data were unavailable; unable to include some treatment agents; low event rates; imbalanced distribution of participants among treatment strategies. 
Conclusions: High-dose statins plus hydration with or without NAC might be the preferred treatment strategy to prevent contrast-induced AKI in patients undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures requiring contrast media. 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69–77
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number1
Early online date1 Oct 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI)
  • contrast media
  • kidney disease
  • acute kidney failure
  • AKI prevention
  • statins
  • hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor
  • statin
  • atorvastatin
  • rosuvastatin
  • simvastatin
  • N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
  • serum creatinine
  • cardiovascular events
  • systematic review

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