Phytopathogens have a limited range of host plant species that they can successfully parasitise ie. that they are adapted for. Infection of plants by nonadapted pathogens often results in an active resistance response that is relatively poorly characterised because phenotypic variation in this response often does not exist within a plant species, or is too subtle for genetic dissection. In addition, complex polygenic inheritance often underlies these resistance phenotypes and mutagenesis often does not impact upon this resistance, presumably due to genetic or mechanistic redundancy. Here it is demonstrated that phenotypic differences in the resistance response of Brachypodium distachyon to the nonadapted wheat stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) are genetically tractable and simply inherited. Two dominant loci were identified on B. distachyon chromosome 4 that each reduce attempted Pst colonisation compared with sib and parent lines without these loci. One locus (Yrr1) is effective against diverse Australian Pst isolates and present in two B. distachyon mapping families as a conserved region that was reduced to 5 candidate genes by fine mapping. A second locus, Yrr2, shows Pst race-specificity and encodes a disease resistance gene family typically associated with host plant resistance. These data indicate that some components of resistance to nonadapted pathogens are genetically tractable in some instances and may mechanistically overlap with host plant resistance to avirulent adapted pathogens.