Construction of homogenized daily surface air temperature for the city of Tianjin during 1887–2019

Peng Si, Qingxiang Li, Phil Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Century-long continuous daily observations from some stations are important for the study of long-term trends and extreme climate events in the past. In this paper, three daily data sources – (1) the Department of Industry Agency of the British Concession in Tianjin covering 1 September 1890–31 December 1931, (2) the Water Conservancy Commission of North China covering 1 January 1932–31 December 1950 and (3) monthly journal sheets for Tianjin surface meteorological observation records covering 1 January 1951–31 December 2019 – have been collected from the Tianjin Meteorological Archive. The completed daily maximum and minimum temperature series for Tianjin from 1 January 1887 (1 September 1890 for minimum) to 31 December 2019 has been constructed and assessed for quality control with an early extension from 1890 back to 1887. Several significant breakpoints are detected by the penalized maximal T test (PMT) for the daily maximum and minimum time series using multiple reference series around Tianjin from monthly Berkeley Earth (BE), Climatic Research Unit Time-Series version 4.03 (CRU TS4.03) and Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) v3 data. Using neighboring daily series the record has been homogenized with quantile matching (QM) adjustments. Based on the homogenized dataset, the warming trend in annual mean temperature in Tianjin averaged from the newly constructed daily maximum and minimum temperature is evaluated as 0.154 ± 0.013 ∘C per decade during the last 130 years. Trends of temperature extremes in Tianjin are all significant at the 5 % level and have much more coincident change than those from the raw data, with amplitudes of −1.454, 1.196, −0.140 and 0.975 d per decade for cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), cold days (TX10p) and warm days (TX90p) at the annual scale. The adjusted daily maximum, minimum and mean surface air temperature dataset for Tianjin city presented here is publicly available at (Si and Li, 2020).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2211-2226
Number of pages16
JournalEarth System Science Data
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2021

Cite this