Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

M. A. H. Lentjes, A. A. Mulligan, A. A. Welch, A. Bhaniani, R. N. Luben, K.-T. Khaw

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Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)568-582
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Issue number6
Early online date16 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • biomarkers
  • cohort study
  • dietary assessment
  • dietary supplements
  • total nutrient exposure

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