Controlled annealing in adaptive multicomponent gels

Paolo Ravarino, Santanu Panja, Simona Bianco, Todor Koev, Matthew Wallace, Dave John Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


We use a pH-driven annealing process to convert between co-assembled and self-sorted networks in multicomponent gels. The initially formed gels at low pH are co-assembled, with the two components coexisting within the same self-assembled structures. We use an enzymatic approach to increase the pH, resulting in a gel-to-sol transition, followed by a hydrolysis to lower the pH once again. As the pH decreases, a self-sorted network is formed by a two-stage gelation process determined by the pKa of each component. This approach can be expanded to layered systems to generate many varied systems by changing composition and rates of pH change, adapting their microstructure and so allowing access to a far greater range of morphologies and complexity than can be achieved in single component systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202215813
JournalAngewandte Chemie International Edition
Issue number4
Early online date23 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2023


  • Annealing
  • Co-Assembly
  • Multicomponent Hydrogel
  • Rheology

Cite this