Streptomyces species produce an incredible array of high-value specialty chemicals and medicinal therapeutics. A single species typically harbors ~30 biosynthetic pathways, but only a few them are expressed in the laboratory; thus, poor understanding of how natural-product biosynthesis is regulated is a major bottleneck in drug discovery. Antimycins are a large family of anticancer compounds widely produced by Streptomyces species, and their regulation is atypical compared to that of most other natural products. Here we demonstrate that antimycin production by Streptomyces albus S4 is regulated by FscRI, a PAS-LuxR family cluster-situated regulator of the polyene antifungal agent candicidin. We report that heterologous production of antimycins by Streptomyces coelicolor is dependent on FscRI and show that FscRI activates the transcription of key biosynthetic genes. We also demonstrate through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FscRI regulation is direct, and we provide evidence that this regulation strategy is conserved and unique to short-form antimycin gene clusters. Our study provides direct in vivo evidence of the cross-regulation of disparate biosynthetic gene clusters specifying unrelated natural products and expands the paradigmatic understanding of the regulation of secondary metabolism.
|Publication status||Published - 7 Dec 2016|