CT measures of femoral and tibial version and rotational position of femoral and tibial components of knee replacements: Limitations in reliability and suitability for routine clinical practice

Andoni P. Toms, Tamam Rifai, Celia Whitehouse, Iain McNamara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: Rotational malalignment of knee replacements as measured on CT is understood to be associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this study is to measure the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of measures of femoral and tibial version in the native arthritic knee and postoperative TKR component position using CT.

Methods: Eighty patients underwent CT of the knee before and after total knee replacement. Preoperative femoral and tibial version and component rotation were independently measured by two musculoskeletal radiologists.

Results: Mean differences between and within raters were small (< 1.6°). Maximum 95% limits of agreement for inter-rater and intra-rater comparisons were 8.1° and 7.6° for preoperative femoral version, 9.0° and 7.9° for postoperative femoral rotation, 26.0° and 20.5° for preoperative tibial version, and 24.9° and 23.6° for postoperative tibial rotation respectively. Postoperative ICCs varied from 0.68 to 0.81 (lower 95% CI:0.55–0.72) for both intra- and inter-rater comparisons. Preoperative ICCs were lower: 0.55–0.75 (lower 95% CI:0.40–0.65).

Conclusion: The lower 95% confidence level for ICC of version and rotational measurements using the Berger protocol of TKRs on CT are all less than 0.73 and that the normal range of differences between observers is up to 9° for the femoral component and 26° for the tibial component. This suggests that CT measurements derived from the Berger protocol may not be consistent enough for clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3790–3798
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number6
Early online date10 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Arthroplasty
  • CT
  • Knee
  • Reproducibility of results
  • Rotation

Cite this