Data for free: How to estimate the association of non-focal subjects using a focal window

TD Sambrook, MB Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a 'focal window' procedure for estimating associations between non-focal animals, based on focal data. The estimate is based on the time that two non-focal animals spend simultaneously proximal to a third, focal animal, relative to the time that would be expected given their independent attraction to this animal. Simulations showed that the error of the estimate was low when at least one of the three associations in the triad was high.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1257-1270
Number of pages14
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2000


  • sampling method
  • association
  • focal

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