Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) consists of a relatively conserved region of lipid A and core-oligosaccharide, and a highly variable region of O-antigen polysaccharide. While lipid A is known to bind to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex, the role of the O-antigen remains unclear. Here we report a novel molecular interaction between dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-2 (Dectin-2) and the mannosylated O-antigen found in a human opportunistic pathogen Hafnia alvei PCM 1223, which has a repeating unit of [-Man-α1,3-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,2-Man-α1,3-]. H. alvei LPS induced higher levels of TNFα and IL-10 from mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), when compared to Salmonella enterica O66 LPS which has a repeat of [-Gal-α1,6-Gal-α1,4-[Glc-β1,3]GalNAc-α1,3-GalNAc-β1,3-]. In a cell-based reporter assay, Dectin-2 was shown to recognise H. alvei LPS. This binding was inhibited by mannosidase treatment of H. alvei LPS and by mutations in the carbohydrate-binding domain of Dectin-2, demonstrating that H. alvei LPS is a novel glycan ligand of Dectin-2. The enhanced cytokine production by H. alvei LPS was Dectin-2 dependent, as Dectin-2 knockout BM-DCs failed to do so. This receptor crosstalk between Dectin-2 and TLR4 involved events including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activation and receptor juxtaposition. Furthermore, another mannosylated LPS from Escherichia coli O9a, also bound to Dectin-2 and augmented TLR4 activation of BM-DCs. Taken together, these data indicate that mannosylated O-antigens from several gram-negative bacteria augment TLR4 responses through interaction with Dectin-2.