Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included cine MRI data sets obtained from three major MRI vendors in four medical centers from 2008 to 2016. Three convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with the U-NET architecture were trained on data sets of increasing variability: (a) a single-vendor, single-center, homogeneous cohort of 100 patients (CNN1); (b) a single-vendor, multicenter, heterogeneous cohort of 200 patients (CNN2); and (c) a multivendor, multicenter, heterogeneous cohort of 400 patients (CNN3). All CNNs were tested on an independent multivendor, multicenter data set of 196 patients. CNN performance was evaluated with respect to the manual annotations from three experienced observers in terms of (a) LV detection accuracy, (b) LV segmentation accuracy, and (c) LV functional parameter accuracy. Automatic and manual results were compared with the paired Wilcoxon test, Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis.
Results: CNN3 achieved the highest performance on the independent testing data set. The average perpendicular distance compared with manual analysis was 1.1 mm ± 0.3 for CNN3, compared with 1.5 mm ± 1.0 for CNN1 (P < .05) and 1.3 mm ± 0.6 for CNN2 (P < .05). The LV function parameters derived from CNN3 showed a high correlation (r2 ≥ 0.98) and agreement with those obtained by experts for data sets from different vendors and centers.
Conclusion: A deep learning–based method trained on a data set with high variability can achieve fully automated and accurate cine MRI analysis on multivendor, multicenter cine MRI data.