Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel enzalutamide analogues as potential anticancer agents

Ritesh P. Bhole, Rupesh V. Chikhale, Ravindra D. Wavhale, Fatmah Ali Asmary, Tahani Mazyad Almutairi, Hassna Mohammed Alhajri, Chandrakant G. Bonde

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Abstract

The androgen receptor inhibitor, Enzalutamide, proved effective against castration resistance prostate cancer, has demonstrated clinical benefits and increased survival rate in men. However, AR mutation (F876L) converts Enzalutamide from antagonist to agonist indicating a rapid evolution of resistance. Hence, our goal is to overcome this resistance mechanism by designing and developing novel Enzalutamide analogues. We designed a dataset of Enzalutamide derivatives using Enzalutamide's shape and electrostatic features to match with pharmacophoric features essential for tight binding with the androgen receptor. Based on this design strategy ten novel derivatives were selected including 5,5-dimethyl-3-(6-substituted benzo[d]thia/oxazol-2-yl)-2-thioxo-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)imidazolidin-4-one (6a-j) for synthesis. All the compounds were evaluated in-vitro on prostate cancer cell lines DU-145, LNCaP and PC3. Interestingly, two compounds 3-(6-hydroxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-5,5-dimethyl-2-thioxo-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl) imidazolidin-4-one (6c, IC50 – 18.26 to 20.31μM) and 3-(6-hydroxybenzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-5,5-dimethyl -2-thioxo- 1- (4-(trifluoromethyl) pyridin-2-yl)imidazolidin-4-one (6h, IC50 – 18.26 to 20.31μM) were successful with promising in-vitro antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cell lines. The binding mechanism of potential androgen receptor inhibitors was further studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and MM-GBSA binding free energy calculations and found in agreement with the in vitro studies. It provided strong theoretical support to our hypothesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere06227
JournalHeliyon
Volume7
Issue number3
Early online date8 Mar 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Binding energy calculations
  • Hybrid molecules
  • Imidazolidinone derivatives
  • Molecular docking
  • Molecular dynamics simulations
  • Prostate cancer

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