Detection of residues of the epoxy adhesive component bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in microwave susceptors and its migration into food

Matthew Sharman, Christina A. Honeybone, Sue M. Jickells, Laurence Castle

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Susceptors are an example of one of the many new products being introduced into food packaging. They are used to achieve local areas of high temperature; this has the effect of browning the food during microwave cooking. Previous work by Begley et al. had suggested that one particular cold cure adhesive component, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), might be present in some susceptor products but gave little indication as to the retail use of these products. As a result an investigation of UK retail samples was carried out in January 1992. Most of the susceptors tested contained no detectable BADGE (<0.1 mg/kg), however, two brands of pizza were found to be packaged with susceptors containing BADGE at between 700 and 800 mg/kg (1.8-2. 0 mg/dm2). Migration of BADGE into the pizzas in question was 01-0.7 mg/kg when they were cooked in their packaging according to on-pack instructions. Further tests undertaken in June 1992 confirmed earlier findings when from a total of 54 samples purchased covering seven manufacturers, nine samples of susceptors used in one brand contained BADGE at concentrations between 1900 and 3200 mg/kg. The manufacturer of this brand has stopped supplying further products to the retail market using this particular type of susceptor. A third set of tests was undertaken in November 1992 to ensure that these products were no longer on sale in the UK. Of 44 susceptors analysed, only one contained BADGE above 0.1 mg/kg; this appeared to be old stock pre-dating the manufacturers’ action.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-787
Number of pages9
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • Adhesives
  • Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether
  • Microwave susceptors
  • Migration

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