Developing and Using the ‘Knowledge Quartet’: A Framework for the Observation of Mathematics Teaching

Tim Rowland, Fay Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes a framework for mathematics lesson observation and
illustrates the ways that this framework is being used in practice, for mathematics teaching
development. The research which led to the development of the framework drew on
videotapes of mathematics lessons prepared and conducted by elementary pre-service
students towards the end of their initial training. A grounded theory approach to data analysis
led to the emergence of the framework - a ‘knowledge quartet’, with four broad dimensions,
through which the mathematics-related knowledge of these teachers could be observed in
practice. We term the four units: foundation, transformation, connection and contingency.
This paper describes how each of these units is characterised, and analyses a fragment of one
of the videotaped lessons, showing how each dimension of the quartet can be identified in the
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-123
JournalThe Mathematics Educator
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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