Development and validation of the Nursing Profession Self-Efficacy Scale

R. Caruso, F. Pittella, F. Zaghini, R. Fida, A. Sili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Aim: This study describes the development and validation of the Nursing Profession Self-Efficacy Scale.

Background: Self-efficacy can be useful in predicting performance, job satisfaction or well-being. In the nursing field, there is a shortage of studies on self-efficacy with regard to nurses’ global confidence in coping ability across a range of everyday, challenging work situations.

Methods: To define the theoretical framework of nursing professional self-efficacy, two focus groups and a literature review were performed. An empirical study was then conducted to test validity and reliability. Face and content validity, construct validity, concurrent validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability were examined. The content validity index was evaluated by 12 experts who suggested deleting 11 redundant items. The final developed tool was tested for construct analysis using a cross-validation approach, randomly splitting the overall sample of 917 nurses in two sub-groups.

Findings: The construct validity indicated two dimensions. The face and content validity were adequate. Test–retest reliability displayed a good stability, and internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was acceptable. Moreover, concurrent validity using the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale was in line with the theoretical framework.

Conclusion: The scale showed evidence of validity and reliability. The major limitation is the strong influence of the Italian context in the tool development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455–464
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Nursing Review
Issue number3
Early online date12 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016


  • Cross-validation
  • Nursing
  • Reliability
  • Self-efficacy
  • Self-perception
  • Validity

Cite this