Development of ‘Baby, Me & NRT’: A behavioural intervention to improve the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy

Lisa McDaid, Joanne Emery, Ross Thomson, Tim Coleman, Sue Cooper, Anne Dickinson, Darren Kinahan-Goodwin, Lucy Phillips, Felix Naughton

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Background: The effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation in pregnancy is limited by inconsistent and incorrect use. This paper describes the development process for “Baby, Me, & NRT”, a novel pregnancy-specific intervention aimed at enhancing adherence to NRT. Methods: An integrated approach to intervention development was used, combining evidence, theory, stakeholders’ feedback, and tailoring principles. The process involved six iterative steps: (1) synthesizing relevant published evidence and guidance, (2) collecting primary qualitative data on barriers and facilitators to NRT adherence along with potential intervention design features, (3) identifying relevant behavioral theories and mapping the evidence against these, (4) prioritizing behavioral determinants identified in steps 1 and 2, generating intervention objectives, and identifying behavior change techniques which target the prioritized determinants, (5) consulting with stakeholders on intervention components, key content and tailoring features, and (6) producing a prototype intervention along with implementation guidance. Results: The prototype intervention comprises of a multi-component, 1-month cessation programme, which includes six enhanced behavioral support sessions delivered by a trained advisor, tailored text messages, a website, and an illustrated booklet. It promotes the uptake of high-dose and combination NRT, emphasizes the importance of adherence, addresses motivation to use NRT, proactively helps problem solve NRT use issues, and provides guidance on preventing and managing smoking lapses. Conclusion: The development process generated an evidence- and theory-guided intervention, designed with stakeholder input, aimed at improving NRT effectiveness for smoking cessation in pregnancy. The prototype intervention has since been optimized and is being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1770–1780
Number of pages11
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number11
Early online date22 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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