Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is at the forefront of noninvasive methods for the assessment of myocardial anatomy, function, and most importantly tissue characterization. The role of CMR is becoming even more significant with an increasing recognition that inflammation plays a major role for various myocardial diseases such as myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) are nanoparticles that are taken up by monocytes and macrophages accumulating at sites of inflammation. In this context, USPIO-enhanced CMR can provide valuable additional information regarding the cellular inflammatory component of myocardial and vascular diseases. Here, we will review the recent diagnostic applications of USPIO in terms of imaging myocardial and vascular inflammation, and highlight some of their future potential.
- cardiac magnetic resonance
- ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide