Background: We investigated in a cohort study, for the first time using 7-day food diaries (7-DFDs), for age-dependent inverse associations with antioxidants, which have anti-carcinogenic properties, and development of Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Methods: A total of 24,068 well individuals completed 7-DFDs and donated blood. Vitamins C and E, carotenes, zinc and selenium intakes, and plasma vitamin C were measured. Participants were monitored for 15 years for BO and OAC. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for: quintiles of intake and in participants younger and >=65 years at recruitment, the midpoint of BO peak prevalence. Results: A total of 197 participants developed BO and 74 OAC. There were no significant associations between antioxidants and BO or OAC in the whole cohort or if >65 years at recruitment. In participants <65 years, for BO, there was an inverse trend across plasma vitamin C quintiles (trend HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71–0.96, P = 0.01), OAC for plasma vitamin C (trend HR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.37–0.92, P = 0.02) and for dietary vitamins C and E (trend HR = 0.71 95% CI = 0.51–0.99, P = 0.04 and trend HR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51–0.96; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Data supports a role for dietary antioxidants prevent BO and OAC, perhaps at the earlier stages of carcinogenesis.